Personality-In defining personality the psychologists employ the two indispensable ideas of
integeration and uniqueness while the various other concepts and principles of psychology refer
to one or another segment of behaviour. Personality invariably signifies for one thing, the
functioning of the whole person and for another the unique organization of the individual that
distinguishes him from his fellows. In accounting for a personality, it therefore becomes essontial
to know how the person, in expressing his needs and his social relationships, functions as a
recognizable unity with distinctive traits, drives, attitudes and habits which enable or
prevent him attaining an adequate adjustment to his environment.
In the early 19th century, James ward in- England, stressed the individualistic
orientation of the psychology of personality. In Germany Wilhelm Stern adopted a similar stand
point in his personalistic approach. In conventional psychology text books personality is placed
at the top of the conceptual hierarchy the lower order concepts lead systematically
to personality as the most complex and inclusive.
There is a point of view, dating from about 1950, according to which personal expersonal
experience is only one aspect of psychology; other aspect refer to other levels of behaviour.
From this stand point "psychology" would have to be replaced by the collective phrase.
"Behaviour Sciences" or, more simply, by the single term "humanics". Thus a reflex action, such as
the blink of the eyelid in response to a sudden visual stimulus, would be regarded as behaviour
at the physiological or neurological level, where as a marked like or dislike of some other
person, say a brother or sister, - would fall directly within the domain of "personality".
There is a no unanimity of thought regarding personality in subhuman organisms, though on the
whole, psychologist tend to human species, chareter as distinguished from,