This book presents several aspects of research on mathematics that have significant applications in engineering, modelling and social matters, discussing a number of current and future social issues and problems in which mathematical tools can be beneficial. Each chapter enhances our understanding of the research problems in a particular an area of study and highlights the latest advances made in that area. The self-contained contributions make the results and problems discussed accessible to readers, and provides references to enable those interested to follow subsequent studies in still developing fields. Presenting real-world applications, the book is a valuable resource for graduate students, researchers and educators. It appeals to general readers curious about the practical applications of mathematics in diverse scientific areas and social problems.